Munsi Premchand

Munshi Premchand – Kalam ke Sipahi

“Our civilization is based on Sahitya And Whatever we are is the result of Sahitya” this line of Munshi Premchand demonstrate about his character as well as the importance of Sahitya in his life. He also referred as “Sabdo ka Silpi” “Kalam Ka Jadugar” Upanyas Samrat” “Hindi Sahitya ka Prarabhkarta” but all of these words are also unable to match his contribution for Hindi Sahitya. Today world knows him as a Munshi Premchand a “Upanyas Samrat” but his real name is Dhanpat Rai Srivastav and he uses pen name “Nawab Rai” in the beginning days of writing.

A Quick Biography Of Munshi Premchad

Birth:31 July 1880
Died: 8 October 1936
Pen Name:Nawab Rai
Childhood Name:Dhanpat Rai
Village:Lamhi Naer Varanasi
Grand Father:Guru Sahai Rai who died in 1897
Father:Ajaib Rai
Mother:Anandi Devi
Married:in 1895 married at the age of 15
Remarried:in 1906 with a window after sepration with first wife
Short Stories/ StoriesAround 300
Novels:14
In kanpur:1905 to June 1909

Munshi Premchand great novelist, story writer, dramatist, essay writer, a translator who passed his whole life around the Hindi Sahitya. Born in Lamhi near Varanshi Uttar Pradesh on 31 july 1880 in a Kayastha family. His Grand Father was a patwari and his father work as clerk in post office.

Tragedies of His Life which Be The Inspiration Of His Writing

Much of his work is affected by his own life and bad experiences which he faced during his life.

  • At the age of eight he lost his mother and deprived from mother’s love.
  • After sometime his Grandfather to whom he was much closer died.
  • Then his father remarried and she only brings troubles in the life of poet.
  • An unsuccessful marriage at a very early age which ends with separation.
  • To come out to his alack married to a widower.

Many more incidents like these directly affect Premchand soul and turned his life toward Sahitya. All of his bad experiences which he got through his life lead him to closely observe and able to understand the suffering of the poor farmers, condition of women, emotions of animals etc which he beautifully describes by his writing.

Munshi Premchand

The Married Life Of Munshi Premchand

Marrying at the age of just fifteen when the poet was preparing for his exam of the 9th class lead his marriage life to a disastrous end.  When he got married he was very young and it was the age of playing & enjoying but he had to marry which cause so many responsibilities on the shoulder of young boy.

Parents never dream anything bad for the children but Sometimes the they did something which proved Damn for their children. Two wrong decisions of the writer’s father bring many problems in his life.

First Decision

  • At the time of his remarried his father was not physically good and was sick. He just created a trap of problems for his son to solve by remarriage.

Second Decision

  •  At the age of fifteen his father arranged Premchand marriage. He was preparing for the annual examination of ninth class. The marriage brings much responsibility on the shoulder of a fifteen years old boy which leads their marriage to failure. After the marriage when he faced the girl, he found he have to passed his whole life with a girl who does not looks good and have a ugly face. His wife was ugly and have many marks on the face. Which was nothing more than a disaster for a little boy.

The new lady in the house unable to get that much of love which she expected and her straightforward behavior cause many conflicts with her mother-in-law which makes the life of Munshi Premchand miserable. He received some relief when his father took both the women with him after his transfer to Jimnia but soon after six months both returned to Lamhi. Meanwhile, his father died which leads the young writer in trouble.

Separation And Remarriage

The continue fights between his wife and stepmother results as his wife decide to leave the house. she was not ready to live with her under the same roof. Premchand who himself was tired with the daily fights did not try to stop her and finally, she left the house and never returned. He himself never try to persuade her for return but somewhere in his soul he has sympathy for her and wants to return her back her position in his life.

But when it has more than three years when she did not return. He decides to remarriage with a widower. He wants to set an example by marrying to a child widow in such social environment where society treats a widower as criminal.  To whom he married was a widower of around twelve or thirteen years old whose husband died after the three months of marriage.

Started writing Under The Name Of Nawab Rai

He started his writing under pen name “Nawab Rai”. Pen name refers to the adopted name of writers which they use for printing. There may be many different possibilities of using Pen name but in the beginning when women were not allowed to write. They use Pen name to disguise their gender because they were aware with the thought if the man dominated society will find the gender behind the writing they will never give their true response.

Premchand Ki Kahaniya In Hindi

Complete Collection – Munshi Premchand Stories, Books, Short Stories, Novels, Kahaniya

Munshi Premchand Stories
Munshi Premchand StoriesMunshi Premchand Stories
Algyoja (अलग्योझा)

Diksha (दीक्षा)
Muktidhan (मुक्तिधन)
Maa (माँ)
Kshama (क्षमा)laag Daat (लाग-डाट)
Beto Wali Vidhwa (बेटों वाली विधवा)
Manusya ka param Dharm (मनुष्य का परम धर्म)
Amavsya Ki Raat (आमावस्या की रात)

Bade Bhai Sahab (बङे भाई साहब)
Guru Mantra (गुरु-मंत्र)
Chamka (चकमा)

Santi (शान्ति)
Saubhagya Ka kore (सौभाग्य के कोड़े)
Pachtava (पछतावा)

Nasha (नशा)
Vichitra Holi (विचित्र होली)
Aap-Beeti (आप-बीती)

Sawamini (स्वामिनी)
Mukti-Marg (मुक्ति-मार्ग)
Rajya-Bhagat (राज्य-भक्त)

Thakur Ka Kua (ठाकुर का कुआँ)
Dikri ke Rupaye (डिक्री के रुपये)
Adhikar-Chinta (अधिकार-चिन्ता)

Ghar Jamai (घर-जमाई)
Satranj Ke Khiladi (शतरंज के खिलाड़ी)
Durasha (दुराशा)

Poos Ki Raat (पूस की रात)
varajpat (वज्रपात)
Jail (जेल)

Jhakhi (झांकी)
Satyagraha (सत्याग्रह)
Patni Se Pati (पत्नी से पति)

Gulli-Danda (गुल्ली-डंडा)
Bhadde ka Tattu (भाड़े का टट्‍टू)
Sharaab Ki Dukan (शराब की दुकान)

jayoti (ज्योति)
Baba Ji Ka Bhog (बाबा जी का भोग)
Juloos (जुलूस)
Dil Ki Rani (दिल की रानी)
Vinod (विनोद)
Maiku (मैकू)

Dhikar (धिक्कार)
Prerna (प्रेरणा)
Samar Yatra (समर-यात्रा)

Kayar (कायर)
Sadgati (सद्गति)
Santi (शांति)

Shikar (शिकार)
Tgada (तगादा)
Bank Ka Diwala (बैंक का दीवाला)

Subhagi (सुभागी)
Two Kabren (दो कब्रें)
Aatmaram (आत्माराम)

Anubhav (अनुभव)
Dporshank (ढपोरशंख)
Durga ka Mandir (दुर्गा का मंदिर)

lanchan (लांछन)
Demonstration (डिमॉन्स्ट्रेशन)
Bade Ghar Ki Beti (बङे घर की बेटी)

Aakhri Hila (आखिरी हीला)
Daroga Ji (दरोगा जी)
Pancprmeshwar (पंचपरमेश्वर)

Tawan (तावान)
Abhilaha (अभिलाषा)
Shankhnad (शंखनाद)

Gaswali (घासवाली)
Khucda (खुचङ)
Jihad (ज़िहाद)

Gila (गिला)
Aaga-Picha (आगा-पीछा)
Fatiha (फ़ातिहा)

Rasik Sampadak (रसिक सम्पादक)
Prem ka Uday (प्रेम का उदय)
Vair ka Anat (वैर का अंत)

Manovriti (मनोवृत्ति)
Sati (सती)
Do Bhai (दो भाई)

Kusum (कुसुम)
Mritak Bhoj (मृतक भोज)
Mahatirth (महातीर्थ)
Khudai Faujdaar (खुदाई फौजदार)
Bhoot (भूत)
Vismarati (विस्मृति)
Vaisya (वेश्या)
Swasser Ghehu (सवासेर गेहूँ)
Prarabdh (प्रारब्ध)

Chamatkar (चमत्कार)
Sabhyata ka Rahsya (सभ्यता का रहस्य)
Shuhag Ki Saari (सुहाग की साड़ी)

Motor Ke Chitte (मोटर के छींटे)
Samsya (समस्या)
Lokmat Ka Samaan (लोकमत का सम्मान)

Kaiddi (कैदी)
Do sakhiyan (दो सखियां)
Nagpuja (नागपूजा)

Miss Padma (मिस पद्मा)
Mange Ki Ghadi (मांगे की घङी)
Khoon Safed (खून सफेद)

Vidrohi (विद्रोही)
Smarati Ka Pujari (स्मृति का पुजारी)
Garib Ki Haay (गरीब की हाय)

Ummad (उन्माद)
Mandir (मंदिर)
Beti Ka Dhan (बेटी का धन)

Nayay (न्याय)
Nimantran (निमंत्रण)
Dharma Sankht (धर्मसंकट)

Kutsa (कुत्सा)
Ram Leela (रामलीला)
Sewa-Marg (सेवा-मार्ग)

Do bailo Ki Katha (दो बैलों की कथा)
kamna Taru (कामना-तरु)
Shikari Rajkumar (शिकारी राजकुमार)

Riyasat Ka Diwan (रियासत का दीवान)
Hinasa Param Dharm (हिंसा परम धर्म)
Idgaah (ईदगाह)
Muft Ka yash (मुफ्त का यश)
Bahiskar (बहिष्कार)
Balidaan (बलिदान)
Bhasi Bhat Me Khuda ka Sajha (बासी भात में खुदा का साझा)
Chori (चोरी)
Boodh (बोध)
Dudh Ka Daam (दूध का दाम)
Lanchan (लांछन)
Sachaai ka Uphaar (सच्चाई का उपहार)
Balak (बालक)
Sati (सती)
Jawalamukkhi (ज्वालामुखी)
Jiwan ka Saap (जीवन का शाप)
Kjhaki (कज़ाकी)
Pasu Se Manusya (पशु से मनुष्य)
Damul ka kaidi (दामुल का कैदी)
Aasuoo Ki Holi (आँसुओं की होली)
Mooth (मूठ)
Neur (नेऊर)
Agni Samadhi (अग्नि समाधि)
Brahm ka Svanag (ब्रह्म का स्वांग)
Grihniti (गृहनीति)
Sujaan Bhagat (सुजान भगत)
Vimata (विमाता)
Kanuni Kumar (कानूनी कुमार)
Pisnhari Ka Kuan (पिसनहारी का कुआं)
Bhudhi kaki (बूढ़ी काकी)
Lottery (लॉटरी)
Sohag ka Saw (सोहाग का शव)
Haar Ki jeet (हार की जीत)
Jadu (जादू)
Aatamsangit (आत्मसंगीत)
Daftri (दफ़्तरी)
naya Vivah (नया विवाह)
Actress (एक्ट्रेस)
Vidhvanas (विध्वंस)
Sudra (शूद्रा)
Ishvariy Nyay (ईश्वरीय न्याय)
Svatv-Raksha (स्वत्व-रक्षा)
Vishwas (विश्वास)
Mamta (ममता)
Purv sanaskar (पूर्व संस्कार)
Narak Ka Narg (नरक का मार्ग)
Mantra (मंत्र)
Dussahas (दुस्साहस)
Satri And Purus (स्त्री और पुरुष)
Prayashchit (प्रायश्चित)
Bauddam (बौड़म)
Udar (उद्धार)
Kaptansahib (कप्तानसाहब)Gupt Dhan (गुप्त धन)
Nirwasana (निर्वासन)
Istiphaa (इस्तीफ़ा)
Aadrsh Virodh (आदर्श विरोध)
Nairasya Lila (नैराश्य लीला)
yah Meri matra Bhumi hai (यह मेरी मातृभूमि है)
Visham Samasya (विषम समस्या)
kausal (कौशल)
Raja Hrdaul (राजा हरदौल)
Anisht shanaka (अनिष्ट शंका)
Sawag Ki Devi (स्वर्ग की देवी)
Tyagi ka Prem (त्यागी का प्रेम)
Saut (सौत)
Aadhar (आधार)
Ranni Sarndha (रानी सारन्धा)
Sajjanata Ka Danad (सज्जनता का दंड)
Ek Aanch Ki Kasar (एक आँच की कसर)
Shaap (शाप)
Namak Ka Daroga (नमक का दारोगा)
Mata ka Hirdya (माता का हृदय)
Maryada Ki Bedi (मर्यादा की वेदी)
Updesh (उपदेश)
Pariksha (परीक्षा)
Mrityu Ke Piche (मृत्यु के पीछे)
Pariksha (परीक्षा)
Tentr (तेंतर)
Pap Ka Agnikunad (पाप का अग्निकुंड)

Nairasya (नैराश्य)
Aabhushan (आभूषण)
Dand (दंड)
Joognoo Ki Chamak (जुगनू की चमक)
Dhikaar (धिक्कार)
Grih Daah (गृह दाह)
Laila (लैला)
Dhokha (धोखा)
Munshi Premchand NovelsMunshi Premchand NovelsMunshi Premchand Novels
Karmabhoomi (कर्मभूमि )
Alankar (अलंकार)
Gaban (गबन)
Nirmala (निर्मला)
Prema (प्रेमा)
Rangbhumi (रंगभूमि)
Godan (गोदान)
Premasrm (प्रेमाश्रम )
Pratigya (प्रतिज्ञा )

A Great Thinker Who Project The Aspirations Of Indian To His Readers

Munshi Premchand was a great thinker who connect himself to the pain & suffering of Indian farmers, Dalits, animals, women and try to portrait their life by his stories’s characters. In the beginning, before Premchand, writers of Hindi Sahitya were writing about the imaginary topics there were fairy tales, magic etc to entertain their readers. But he though toward the literature was different, he knew by his pen he could create ray of hope in the society. Premchand used literature as weapon to fight against the wrong deeds which were the reason of hollowing the society.  In his works he showed the reality of the society, like the result of  Zamindari & British government in the life of farmers poor, miserable situation of middle-class women who were not allowed to dream or show their desires.

He work for the development of Indians which was necessary for them to come out form all the superstitions and old beliefs like dowry, widow remarriage, freedom of expression etc which they were performing in their daily life which only causing disaster for society.

Munshi Premchand used the common man as heroes and heroines of his writing to depict the reality and common problems of life which peoples were facing throughout their life. In Shroud “Kafan” he explains the mentality of two Dalit “chamar” characters who do not want to work. Even when one’s wife was about to death they had no care. All the possibilities were depended on the god. The writer here also satire on the customs of the funeral when one tell “What a bad custom it is that someone who didn’t even get a rag to cover her body when she was alive, needs a new shroud when she’s dead.”

Writer could use any caste or community to explain the story but they especially use two Dalit characters because under the feudal and zamindari system it was natural to stuck with this time of mentality of helplessness and carelessness.

Munshi Premchand Quotes In Hindi

Read More – Munshi Premchand Quotes

The Political, Religious, Social & Economical Situation Of india During Premchand’s Age

The age of Munshi Premchand was the age of struggle for the Indians. One side the youngsters of India was ready to sacrifice their life for the pride & freedom but on the other hand, the British government’s cruelty was on the utmost. Due to the slavery, the development was zero and on the other side superstitions, bad customs, old rituals were hollowing India.

The beginning of 20th century was much painful for Indians, Swadhinta Sangram of 1815 had been proved unsuccessful and many more incidents were taking place in the history like Zaliyawala Bag etc So the development of Premchand as deshbhakht was natural in this negative environment to depict the full scenario of India’s political, Social, religious and economical condition by his pen.

The women of middle-class family was also worse. She have so much boundations which stooped them to express their own desires & pain. She was treated as the Lakshmi of the house and never expected anything wrong by her. Her first and last aim of life was to serve or protect the values of the family at any cost. But for the Women from lower class have not such boundation, even she can marry more than one time. If we talk about upper-class ladies they do care about the so called tradition values. So 

Munshi Premchand try to pint out the situation of middle class women In “Nirmala” and “Gaban Ki Ratan” that how they have to hide their own desires to protect the values of family. And in exchange they just got Accusation or abuse. The heroine of Nirmala first forced to marry a widower who was double of her age. Next, she has to face the suspicion of husband that she has affair with the oldest son which lead to a disastrous end.